Signs and Symptoms of kidney failure


Journal of Kidney Treatment and Diagnosis consists of the latest findings related to pathogenesis and treatment of kidney disease, hypertension, acid-base and electrolyte disorders, dialysis therapies, and kidney transplantation.

Signs and Symptoms of kidney failure can vary from person to person. Someone in early stage kidney disease may not feel sick or notice symptoms as they occur. When the kidneys fail to filter properly, waste accumulates in the blood and the body, a condition called azotemia. Very low levels of azotemia may produce few, if any, symptoms. If the disease progresses, symptoms become noticeable (if the failure is of sufficient degree to cause symptoms). Kidney failure accompanied by noticeable symptoms is termed uraemia.

 Symptoms of kidney failure include the following:

 High levels of urea in the blood, which can result in:

    • Vomiting or diarrhea (or both) may lead to dehydration
    • Nausea
    • Weight loss
    • Nocturnal urination nocturia
    • More frequent urination, or in greater amounts than usual, with pale urine
    • Less frequent urination, or in smaller amounts than usual, with dark coloured urine
    • Blood in the urine
    • Pressure, or difficulty urinating
    • Unusual amounts of urination, usually in large quantities
  • A buildup of phosphates in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out may cause:
    • Itching
    • Bone damage
    • Nonunion in broken bones
    • Muscle cramps (caused by low levels of calcium which can be associated with hypophosphatemia)
  • A buildup of potassium in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out (called hyperkalemia) may cause:
    • Abnormal heart rhythms
    • Muscle paralysis
  • Failure of kidneys to remove excess fluid may cause:
    • Swelling of the hands, legs, ankles, feet, or face
    • Shortness of breath due to extra fluid on the lungs (may also be caused by anemia)
  • Polycystic kidney disease, which causes large, fluid-filled cysts on the kidneys and sometimes the liver, can cause:
    • Pain in the back or side
  • Healthy kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin that stimulates the bone marrow to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail, they produce less erythropoietin, resulting in decreased production of red blood cells to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells. As a result, the blood carries less hemoglobin, a condition known as anemia. This can result in:
    • Feeling tired or weak
    • Memory problems
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Dizziness
    • Low blood pressure
  • Normally proteins are too large to pass through the kidneys. However they are able to pass through when the glomeruli are damaged. This does not cause symptoms until extensive kidney damage has occurred,[20] after which symptoms include:
    • Foamy or bubbly urine
    • Swelling in the hands, feet, abdomen, and face
  • Other symptoms include:
    • Appetite loss, which may include a bad taste in the mouth
    • Difficulty sleeping
    • Darkening of the skin
    • Excess protein in the blood
    • With high doses of penicillin, people with kidney failure may experience seizures.


Journal of Kidney Treatment and Diagnosis publishes the manuscripts that are directly or indirectly based on variegated aspects of Articles that are submitted to our journal will undergo a double-blind peer-review process to maintain quality and the standards set for academic journals.  The review process will do by our external reviewers which are double-blind. The comments will upload directly to the editorial tracking system. Later the editor will check the comments whether it is acceptable or not.   The overall process will take around 21 days under with the editor. After acceptance by the editor, it will be published on the Press page.  Authors can submit their manuscripts to the online submission portal.

With Regards,
John Robert                             
Managing Editor
Journal of Kidney Treatment and Diagnosis

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